a:5776 t:2 y:7

5.『英標』の1/3縮約 ―― 例題81~110


われわれは前途にあるものを一べつすることはめったにできない。前に経験したできごとについての知識を身につけた上で、もう一度同じ体験をすることが許されたとしたら、事情は違ってくるだろう。歴史が必然的にたどる法則を全然知らないことは幸運なことだろう。 (122字/389字=31%)

We can rarely get a glimpse of what lies ahead. It would be different if it were given to us to live a second time through the same events with all the knowledge of what we've seen before. It's probably fortunate that man knows of no laws which history must obey. (51語/133語=38%)



At five I went to a dame-school, where the two daughters of the vicar taught children to read and do sums. At this school I told my first lie to a person in authority. When we began arithmetic, we worked with counters. I discovered rows of dots on the blue cover of one's exercise book could be made to serve the same purpose of counters. The day came when an injured spinsterly voice said to me, "These specks on the cover of your book, John; you've not using them as counters, have you?" I said, "No."  (96語/254語=38%)


ニュートンの死後百年のあいだは、宇宙の性質を徹底的に究明することは依然として不可能であると信じられていた。天文学者は、物理学者や化学者や生物学者とは違って、自分で考えて勝手に実験を行うことができない。天文学者は、宇宙を旅行して、自分の興味を引く事がらを調べたりすることはできない。 (139字/380字=37%)

For a hundred years after the death of Newton a thorough inquiry into the nature of the universe was still believed impossible. The astronomer cannot invent his own experiments as the physicist, the chemist, or the biologist can. He cannot travel about the universe examining the items that interest him. (50語/130語=38%)


私は大学で植物学だけは、ぜったいパスできなかった。それは植物学をとる学生は全員、顕微鏡で植物細胞をのぞかなければならなかったのに、わたしはできなかったからである。先生は、君にだって顕微鏡はのぞけるさ、ただのぞけないふりをしているだけだよ、というのであった。「でも、ぼくにはなにも見えませんよ」と私はいうのだった。片方の目を顕微鏡に当ててみると、なにも見えないで、ただときどき不透明な乳状のものが見えるだけだった―それも調節不良に伴う現象だった。「なんだかミルクみたいなものがいっぱい見えますよ」と私が先生にいうと、先生は、それは顕微鏡を正しく調節しないからだよといって、私に合うように調節するのであった。それで、私がもう一度のぞいてみると、やっぱりミルクが見えるのであった。 (337字/1106字=30%)

I could never pass botany at my university. This was because all botany students had to look through a microscope at plant cells and I couldn't. My instructor would explain how anybody can see through a microscope, but he would claim that I could too see through a microscope but just pretended that I couldn't. "Well," I'd say, "I can't see anything." I would put my eye to the microscope and see nothing at all, except now and again a nebulous milky substance ―a phenomenon of maladjustment. He'd readjust the microscope properly for me, and I'd look again and see milk. (101語/273語=37%)


文明人は先見の明によって野蛮人と区別される。文明人は将来の楽しみのためには、現在の苦痛に耐える。この習慣は農業が起こるに伴って重要になってきた。どんな動物も未開人も、春に仕事をして冬の食料に困らないようにしようとは思わない。 (112字/293字=38%)

The civilized man is distinguished from the savage by forethought. He's willing to endure present pains for future pleasure. This habit began to be important with rise of agriculture. No animal and savage would do work in the spring to have food next winter. (44語/117語=38%)


私の部屋の壁の一面には本がぎっしり並んでいる。蔵書と呼べるようなものをもって仕事ができる喜びを経験するのはこれが初めてである。今まで蔵書の助けを借りないで仕事をしてきたという事実を、不利なことというよりむしろ有利なことであったと考えている。読書の情熱が私をとりこにした瞬間から、私が遭遇したのは障害ばかりであった。読みたい本は図書館ではいつも借り出されていた。私にはそれらを買うだけの金をもっていたためしはない。本は読者から読者への熱心な推薦によって生き続ける。人間が持っているこの基本的な衝動の息の根を止めることができるものはなにもない。人間は最も深い経験をともに分かち合おうとする努力をやめることは決してないだろうと私は信じている。すぐれた人間であればあるほど、自分が大切に所有しているものを惜しまずに手放すものである。本を頭と心で所有すれば、あなたは豊かになる。しかし、本を人にまわせば、あなたはその三倍も豊かになれる。 (413字/1223字=34%)

One wall of my room is completely lined with books. It's the first time I've had the pleasure of working with a collection of books. The fact that in the past I did most of my work without the aid of a library I look upon as an advantage rather than a disadvantage. From the moment the passion of reading took hold on me I encountered nothing but obstacles. The books I wanted to read, at the public library, were always out. And I never had the money to buy them. A book lives through the passionate recommendation of one reader to another. Nothing can throttle this basic impulse in the human being. It's my belief that men will always strive to share their deepest experiences. The better the man, the more easily will he part with his most cherished possessions. When you've possessed a book with mind and spirit, you're enriched. But when you pass it on you are enriched threefold. (162語/438語=37%)


詩は詩人と同じ民族に属し同じ言語を話す人びとにとって、ほかの国民に対してはもちえない価値をもっているという点で、たのすべての芸術とは異なっている。詩を翻訳で読む場合よりも、小説を翻訳で読む場合のほうが失うものは少ない。詩は散文よりもはるかに郷土的である。外国語によって感情を汲みとるよりは、外国語でものを考えるほうが楽である。詩以上に徹底的に国民的な芸術はないのである。 (185字/568字=33%)

Poetry differs from every other art in having a value for the people of the poet's race and language, which it can have for no other. We lose much less in reading a novel in translation than in reading a poem. Poetry is much more local than prose. It is easier to think in a foreign language than it is to feel in it. No art is more stubbornly national than poetry. (72語/226語=32%)



Some natures, to be hung at ten, will play chess at eight. They invariably rise. They're men of facts and decision switching imagination on and off, subordinating sentiment to reason. (30語/80語=38%)


教育のある人が教育のない人よりも幸福であるというのは決して自明ではない。自分が受け継いだ社会習慣や趣味をもった人の水準以上の教育を受けると、心に分裂が生じ幸福を妨げることもある。自己の才能や力量以上に技術や芸能や学問を教えこまれることは、その人にとって災難であることもある。教育も度が過ぎると、不幸を生み出しうるのである。 (161字/433字=37%)

That the educated person is happier than the uneducated is by no means self-evident. To be educated above the level of those whose social habits and tastes one has inherited, may cause a division within a man which interferes with happiness. Too much education, can produce unhappiness. (47語/151語=31%)



Our development depends upon the people we meet in our lives. The benefit of meetings is due to the differences and resemblances. Fortunate is the man who meets the friend and fortunate also is the man who meets the enemy. The friction is quite necessary for civilization. The universality of irritation is the best assurance of peace. (57語/152語=38%)



A characteristic of American culture that has become almost a tradition is the glorification of the self-made man―the man who has risen to the top through his own efforts. Now there is in America a curious combination of pride in having risen to a position where it is no longer necessary to depend on manual labor for a living and genuine delight in what one is able to accomplish with his hands. (72語/217語=33%)


思考は自由である。人は自分の考えていることを隠してさえいれば、勝手になにを考えようと絶対に妨げられることはない。しかし、考えていることを他人に伝えることが許されないとしたら、考える人自身にとって不本意であるばかりか苦痛にさえ感じられる。ソクラテスのように、自分の考えを隠すくらいなら死に直面した方がましだと考えた人もいるし、今日だってそれを選ぶ人もあるだろう。 (180字/485字=37%)

Thought is free. A man can never be hindered from thinking whatever he chooses so long as he conceals what he thinks. But it is unsatisfactory and even painful if he is not permitted to communicate his thoughts to others. Some have preferred, like Socrates, some would prefer today to face death rather than conceal their thoughts. (57語/170語=34%)


コミュニケーションとは、情報を人に伝えることである。後になって、コミュニケーションは場所への経路を意味するようにもなった。産業革命以来、鉄道、車、飛行機などが進歩し、コミュニケーションという時、こういった移動や運搬手段を意味することが多い。移動や運搬をいう場合はトランスポートのほうがよいと思われる。私はコミュニケーションという語を情報を送り受け取る方式という意味で用いる。 (186字/526字=35%)

The meaning of communication is passing information to person. Later it came to mean a channel to place. Since the Industrial Revolution, there has been so much improvement in railways, cars, aircraft that when we say communications, we mean these ways of travelling and carrying. I think for describing traveling and carrying, transport is better. I mean by communications the forms in which information is transmitted and received. (68語/186語=37%)


経済学は、日常生活全般に関するものである。毎週かなりの収入が得られる仕事がありさえすれば、買う品物は当然あるものとわれわれは考えた。しかし、戦争以来、われわれは経済界の複雑さというきびしい事態に当面している。日常生活に用いる品物を、どんなに多く、世界の津々浦々から仰いでいるかがわかってきた。 (146字/490字=30%)

Economics is about everyday things in life. As long as we had a job, which brought in a reasonable income per week we assumed that there would be the things to buy. Since the war, however, we have been brought up sharply against the complexities of the economic world. We have realized that we are dependent on the four corners of the world for the goods in our daily life. (68語/224語=30%)



Although the social and political changes have been drastic and widespread in Japan during the past hundred years, Japan has been spared the eventual occurrence of a violent revolution. Then a certain basic continuity with past traditions has been preserved. In Japan, old and new exist together, are intermixed: but so are East and West. (54語145/語=37%)



He was an old man who fished in a skiff in the Gulf Stream. It made a boy sad to see the old man come in with his skiff empty and helped him to carry the coiled lines and the sail. The sail was patched with flour sacks and it looked like the flag of permanent defeat. (55語/148語=37%)


人はすべて平等という主張は、正気な人なら賛成しない主張である。危険な手術を受ける人は、医者は同じだという想定のもとには行動しない。敵を許すのが正しいと信じていた中世の信心深い貴族も、少しでもしゃくにさわると、すぐに剣を抜いた。人間の心は矛盾を犯すことにかけては無限の能力をもっている。 (421字/445字=31%)

That all men are equal is an assertion to which no sane human being has ever given his assent. A man who undergoes a dangerous operation doesn't think one doctor is as good as another. The pious mediaeval nobleman who believed in forgiving enemies was ready to draw his sword at the slightest provocation. The human mind has an infinite capacity for being inconsistent. (64語/173語=37%)



One of the chief things in science is careful observation, A professor of medicine told his students he wanted them to do after him exactly what he did. He dipped a finger in the water and then put a finger in his mouth. The students put a finger in the water and then in the mouth. The professor said: "Unfortunately you do not observe carefully. I put my second finger in the water and then put the third finger in my mouth." It is important to notice what really happens and not what we think is going to happen. (97語/287語=34%)


老人は、ほかの漁船が水面に低く、十分岸に寄って、海流の上に横にちらばっているのを見ることができた。まぶしい光が海面に反映して目がひどく痛むので、老人はそれを見ないで舟を漕いだ。彼は釣り糸をだれよりもまっすぐおろしていた。 (110字/357字=31%)

The old man could see the other boats, low on the water and well in toward the shore, spread out across the current. The sea sent the glare at his eyes so that it hurt sharply and he rowed without looking into it. He kept the fishing-lines straighter than anyone did. (50語/151語=33%)


活動しないで幸福になることは不可能であるが、その活動が過度であったり、不愉快であれば幸福にはなれない。活動が愉快なのは、それが明瞭に希望する目的に向けられ衝動に反してない時である。技術的に進歩した社会では、たいていの人びとは仕事以外のところで幸福を見いださねばならない。 (135字/356字=38%)

It is impossible to be happy without activity, but it is also impossible to be happy if the activity is excessive or of a repulsive kind. Activity is agreeable when it is directed obviously to a desired end and is not contrary to impulse. Most people, in a technically advanced society, have to find their happiness outside the work. (59語/157語=38%)



I had a very happy childhood. I had a wise and patient nanny; as father and mother who loved each other and made a success of their marriage and of parenthood. My father was a very agreeable man. The quality of agreeableness is not much stressed nowadays. People tend to ask if a man is clever, industrious, if he contributes to the community, if he 'counts' in the scheme of things. (70語/185語=38%)


よい辞書は、よい地図が人が旅行しようと望んでいる地域の性質を教えてくれるのと、だいたい同じように、慣用のしるべとなるものである。 (64字/211字=30%)

A good dictionary is a guide to usage much as a good map tells you the nature of the terrain over which you may want to travel. (26語/84語=31%)


思惟を行うとことは人間にとっては、不自然で、骨の折れる行為である。われわれは、必要以上にものを考えることはめったにない。そして考えることを嫌う気持ちは、われわれが最も気楽に感じている時が最も著しい。泰平の世には歴史的思索は行わない。歴史の流れに棹さしていることも知らず、歴史を生き抜くことだけで満足する。 (152字/456字=33%)

Thinking is an unnatural and laborious activity for human beings. We seldom do more of it than we have to; and our disinclination to think is greatest when we're feeling the most comfortable. In easy and prosperous times mankind does not do very much of its historical thinking. In such times we're content just to live through history without realizing we're traveling down its stream. (63語/172語=37%)

例題104 (省略)


いかなるイギリス人にとっても、だれが世界で最も偉大な詩人であり劇作家であるかは疑問の余地はない。シェークスピアである。われわれはみな、英語を話す人びとの共有財産になっているシェークスピアの作品に由来する言葉や成句や引用句を用いている。外国人にとってシェークスピアによる変化に富んだ英語の使い方を研究すること以上に、英語の豊かさと多様性を鑑賞する方法はないだろう。 (181字/524字=35%)

For any Englishman, there can never be any discussion as to who is the world's greatest poet and dramatist. That is Shakespeare. All of us use words, phrases and quotations from Shakespeare's writings that have become part of the common property of English-speaking people. There is probably no better way for a foreigner to appreciate the richness and variety of the English language than by studying the various ways in which Shakespeare uses it.  (74語/217語=35%)


その手紙を自分を満足させ、感じていたすべてを明らかにするために書いた。その手紙は一人の女に宛てた手紙というよりは神に宛てた説明と詫びの手紙だった。 (78字/240字=33%)

I wrote the letter of my own satisfaction, in order to make explicit all that I felt. It was a letter addressed not so much to a woman as to God, a letter of explanation and apology. (39語/107語=36%)


イギリス人は冷静で感情に動かされないように見える。なにか事件が起こった場合、イギリス人は、頭では早くそれを理解するが、心にそれを感じるまでには時間がかかる。イギリス人とフランス人を乗せた馬車があやうく谷に落ちるところであった。フランス人は逆上した。イギリス人は落ちついてすわっていた。1時間たつと、両者の立場は逆転していた。フランス人は談笑していたが、イギリス人は神経がおかしくなった。フランス人はすぐに、イギリス人はゆっくり反応を示したのである。 (223字/674字=33%)

The Englishman appears to be cold and unemotional. When an event happens, he may understand it quickly enough with his mind, but he takes quite a while to feel it. A coach, containing some Englishmen and Frenchmen, nearly fell into the ravine below. The Frenchmen were frantic with terror. The Englishmen sat quite calm. An hour later the situations were exactly reversed. The Frenchmen were chattering gaily; one Englishman had a nervous breakdown. The Frenchmen responded at once; the Englishmen responded in time.  (82語/219語=37%)



When two Englishmen who have never met come face to face in a railway compartment, they start talking about the weather. Most people are not interested in climatic conditions. It can be embarrassing to be alone in the company you are not acquainted with and not speak to them. However, by talking to the other person about some neutral topic like the weather, it's possible to strike up a relationship with him. Railway-compartment conversations of this kind are good example of the sort of important social function that is fulfilled by language. The most important thing about the conversation between our two Englishmen is not the words they're using but the fact that they're talking at all. He'll learn certain things about the other person not so much from what he says as from how he says it, for whatever we speak we cannot avoid giving clues about our origins and the sort of person we are. All of this information can be used by the people we are speaking with to help them to formulate an opinion about us.  (181語/480語=38%)


人びとはいろいろな理由のために外国語を学ぶ。試験や海外旅行のために外国語を学ぼうとする人もある。実業家は海外との通信文を扱わなければならないし、調査研究に従事する人は外誌の最新の記事を読むことの重要性を悟っている。文学の研究家は大家の作品を翻訳物に頼らないで読まなければならない。新しい言語を学ぶことは新しい世界に近づくことであり、知的経験を拡大することになる。 (181字/530字=34%)

People study foreign languages for various reasons. They do so for some public examination or a holiday abroad. Men of business have to deal with foreign correspondence and research workers realize the importance of being able to read the latest accounts in foreign journals. Students of literature must read the masters at first hand. Learning a new language implies approaching a new world and widening intellectual experience. (67語/195語=34%)



It is, and has been, the most prized of our national possessions: a sense of humour. How much and how often we congratulate ourselves upon it. Such a national characteristic is bound to spill over into literature. It is through humour, using the word in the broad sense that we employ when congratulating ourselves on the depth and variety of our own sense of humour, that the British imagination has found its characteristic form in the modern novel.  (78語/217語=36%)


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